Dr T. R. Armitage’s Journal, 1880-82

Dr T. R. Armitage’s Journal, 1880-82, Braille. Dimensions: 210 x 500 x 40mm (open)

RNIB Collection Acc No: PP/1

Dr T. R. Armitage’s Journal, 1880-82, Braille.

Credit: RNIB

Thomas Rhodes Armitage (1824-90) trained as a doctor, retiring in the 1850s due to failing sight. He formed the British and Foreign Society for Improving the Embossed Literature of the Blind in 1868, later attacking the ‘utter confusion’ produced by a ‘Babel’ of systems. Along with three other blind men – James Gale, W. Fenn and Daniel Connolly – the Society (which eventually became the RNIB) began to research the effectiveness of different European and American raised alphabets for both reading and writing. In 1870, after interviewing many blind people, the group, whilst praising Moon type, detailed the advantages of the dotted systems being used throughout America and Europe, and endorsed braille.


T. R. Armitage, The Education and Employment of the Blind. What it has been, is, and ought to be (London: British & Foreign Blind Association, 1871)

Mary G. Thomas, N. I. B. Biographies: Thomas Rhodes Armitage (London: National Institute for the Blind, 1952)

Object description:

This book is open, and contains two pages of braille text. [journal transcription available from RNIB]

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *